• Overall structure

  • Horizontal alignment of pictured teeth (HAPT)

  • (a) Tooth top points on teeth areas (marked in greed). (b) Fitted top line (in red). (c) HAPT image.

  • Probability map generation

  • (a) The architecture of our CNN. (b) Caries probability map generated from the CNN.

  • Crown extraction

  • (a) Teeth isolation. (b) Gum line detection. (c) Crown region segmentation.

  • Refinement

  • Probability adjustment. (a) Test image. (b) Caries probability map from CNN. (c) Caries probability map by prior 1). (d) Caries probability map by prior 1) and 2).

    Non-maximum suppression. (a) A caries region (in green) and the local window (in blue). (b) Suppression result.

  • Experimental results

  • Visual comparison. (a) Ground truth regions. (b) Detected proximal dental caries regions. (c) Caries probability maps.

    Performance evaluation. (a) Precision-recall curve. (b) F1 score against threshold.

    Joonhyang Choi, Hyunjun Eun, and Changick Kim, "Boosting Proximal Dental Caries Detection via Combination of Variational Methods and Convolutional Neural Network," Journal of Signal Processing Systems, vol. 90, no. 1, pp.87-97, Jan. 2018.