(a) Tooth top points on teeth areas (marked in greed). (b) Fitted top line (in red). (c) HAPT image.
(a) The architecture of our CNN. (b) Caries probability map generated from the CNN.
(a) Teeth isolation. (b) Gum line detection. (c) Crown region segmentation.
Probability adjustment. (a) Test image. (b) Caries probability map from CNN. (c) Caries probability map by prior 1). (d) Caries probability map by prior 1) and 2).
Non-maximum suppression. (a) A caries region (in green) and the local window (in blue). (b) Suppression result.
Visual comparison. (a) Ground truth regions. (b) Detected proximal dental caries regions. (c) Caries probability maps.
Performance evaluation. (a) Precision-recall curve. (b) F1 score against threshold.