• Overall structure 

  • Horizontal alignment of pictured teeth (HAPT)

  • (a) Tooth top points on teeth areas (marked in greed). (b) Fitted top line (in red). (c) HAPT image.

  • Probability map generation

  • (a) The architecture of our CNN. (b) Caries probability map generated from the CNN.

  • Crown extraction

  • (a) Teeth isolation. (b) Gum line detection. (c) Crown region segmentation.

  • Refinement

  • Probability adjustment. (a) Test image. (b) Caries probability map from CNN. (c) Caries probability map by prior 1). (d) Caries probability map by prior 1) and 2).

    Non-maximum suppression. (a) A caries region (in green) and the local window (in blue). (b) Suppression result.

  • Experimental results

  • Visual comparison. (a) Ground truth regions. (b) Detected proximal dental caries regions. (c) Caries probability maps.

    Performance evaluation. (a) Precision-recall curve. (b) F1 score against threshold.